On November 26, 1945, Parker led a record date for the Savoy label, marketed as the "greatest Jazz session ever." Parker's style of composition involved interpolation of original melodies over existing jazz forms and standards, a practice known as contrafact and still common in jazz today. It was converted into apartments in 2005, and is now posited as ‘995 Fifth Avenue’. Crouch begins by dropping you in medias res on a hot, 1940s New York City bandstand with the Jay McShann band featuring Charlie Parker on alto … Parker lived here from 1950 to 1954, with his common-law wife Chan Berg – in a ground-floor flat at 151 Avenue B. When he finally did come in, he swayed wildly and once spun all the way around, away from his microphone. , In the mid-1930s, Parker began to practice diligently. Avenue B between East 7th and East 10th Streets was given the honorary designation "Charlie Parker Place" in 1992. Because of the two-year Musicians' Union ban of all commercial recordings from 1942 to 1944, much of bebop's early development was not captured for posterity. He played with local bands in jazz clubs around Kansas City, Missouri, where he perfected his technique, with the assistance of Buster Smith, whose dynamic transitions to double and triple time influenced Parker's developing style. It could never be argued that Armstrong – gregarious, upbeat and charismatic – has been forgotten. Primarily a player of the alto saxophone, Parker's tone ranged from clean and penetrating to sweet and somber. He experienced great hardship in California, eventually being committed to Camarillo State Mental Hospital for a six-month period. Charlie Parker lived hard, played hard, died young. Another landmark, though, remains. Charlie Parker was immortalized in actor, director and long-time jazz enthusiast Clint Eastwood’s 1988 film Bird. Even though his life was … Parker’s distinctive saxophone style, which drew blues and even latin influences into its rich textures, was frequently to be heard in the clubs of Harlem, where this heady rhythmic soup was on the boil.  Six master takes from this session became the album Charlie Parker with Strings: "Just Friends", "Everything Happens to Me", "April in Paris", "Summertime", "I Didn't Know What Time It Was", and "If I Should Lose You". Before this session, Parker drank a quart of whiskey. Miles Davis once said, "You can tell the history of jazz in four words: Louis Armstrong. Preservation Hall - New Orleans (726 St Peter Street; 001 504 522 2841; preservationhall.com). He played Fairyland Park in the summer with McShann's band at 75th and Prospect for all-white audiences. The addiction that stemmed from this incident led him to miss performances, and to be considered unreliable. Duke Ellington played regularly. An autopsy revealed such damage to the inside of his body that the doctor who performed the autopsy thought Charlie was a man at least 50 years old. Charlie is going to be murdered by being pushed in front of a subway car, and his body literally explodes from the impact. There are, though, heartfelt tributes in this distant city of his birth. When Charlie Parker’s 2-year-old daughter Pree died of pneumonia on March 6, 1954, he was in Los Angeles fulfilling a week-long engagement at the Tiffany Club. Parker began playing the saxophone at age 11, and at age 14 he joined his high school band where he studied under Bandmaster Alonzo Lewis.  Unfortunately, the concert happened at the same time as a televised heavyweight boxing match between Rocky Marciano and Jersey Joe Walcott, so the musical event was poorly attended. We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism. ", In 1995, the U.S. Legendary jazz musician Charlie Parker died 50 years ago Saturday. Charlie Parker Jr. was born in Kansas City, Kansas, at 852 Freeman Avenue, and raised in Kansas City, Missouri, near Westport and later – in high school – near 15th and Olive Street. A focal point for the genre, it was opened by the saxophonist Henry Minton in 1938, and would thrive for the next 20 years. Parker was an icon for the hipster subculture and later the Beat Generation, personifying the jazz musician as an uncompromising artist and intellectual rather than just an entertainer. His ability has also held its poise into the 21st century, in numbers such as Yardbird Suite and Bird Gets The Worm – the latter, at 340 beats per minute, a track of remarkable speed. He drifts beyond borders too. Charlie "Bird" Parker died on March 12, 1955 in NYC of an apparent heart attack, presumably brought on by his bad health, which was exacerbated by his addiction to heroin and alcohol. This brownstone townhouse knows its position in jazz lore. Miles Davis performed here. But the latter, a far more troubled and complex character than the great Satchmo, can be a little harder to pin down. The coroner conducting his autopsy initially thought that he was examining a man of 60. While tunes such as "Now's The Time", "Billie's Bounce", "Au Privave", "Barbados", "Relaxin' at Camarillo", "Bloomdido", and "Cool Blues" were based on conventional 12-bar blues changes, Parker also created a unique version of the 12-bar blues for tunes such as "Blues for Alice", "Laird Baird", and "Si Si." Charlie Parker. On "Bebop" (the final track Parker recorded that evening) he begins a solo with a solid first eight bars; on his second eight bars, however, he begins to struggle, and a desperate Howard McGhee, the trumpeter on this session, shouts, "Blow!" He was the only child of Charles Parker and Adelaide "Addie" Bailey, who was of mixed Choctaw and African American background. He worked for nine dollars a week as a dishwasher at Jimmie's Chicken Shack, where pianist Art Tatum performed.  However, rather than discouraging Parker, the incident caused him to vow to practice harder, and turned out to be a seminal moment in the young musician's career when he returned as a new man a year later.  At this concert, Parker played a plastic Grafton saxophone. If you listen carefully, you may just be able to hear a saxophone and a trumpet in harmony. Parker contributed greatly to the modern jazz solo, one in which triplets and pick-up notes were used in unorthodox ways to lead into chord tones, affording the soloist more freedom to use passing tones, which soloists previously avoided. The coroner who performed his autopsy mistakenly estimated Parker's 34-year-old body to be between 50 and 60 years of age.. Berg criticized Doris and Parker's family for giving him a Christian funeral, even though they knew he was a confirmed atheist. These young iconoclasts included Gillespie, pianist Thelonious Monk, guitarist Charlie Christian, and drummer Kenny Clarke. He held several other jobs as well. Parker was a blazingly fast virtuoso and introduced revolutionary harmonic ideas into jazz, including rapid passing chords, new variants of altered chords, and chord substitutions. His father, Charles Sr., was often required to travel for work, but provided some musical influence because he was a pianist, dancer and singer on the Theater Owners Booking Association (T.O.B.A.)  Although unclear which came first, his addiction to opiates began at the age of 16, when he was injured in a car crash and a doctor prescribed morphine for the pain. In an interview with Paul Desmond, Parker said that he spent three to four years practicing up to 15 hours a day.. In 1954, he twice attempted suicide before spending time in Bellevue. ... Parker died on March 12, 1955, at age 34, after vomiting blood in a friend’s hotel suite. The icon whose own Kind Of Blue ranks as one of the finest recorded statements of the 20th (or, indeed, any) century may have been underplaying his own place on the cultural pantheon, but his statement still rings with authority. “You can tell the history of jazz in four words,” he once commented. Bohemian Caverns - Washington DC (2001 11th Street NW; 001 202 299 0800; bohemiancaverns.com). Its appearance has been sharpened, the service too – the tough-living Parker would, one suspects, raise an eyebrow at a menu that serves items as gourmet as a grilled venison burger with blackberry onion jam (for $26/£17). Parker's body was flown back to Missouri, in accordance with his mother's wishes. And a revival – the club opened again in 2006. Minton’s Playhouse was one of the twentysomething Parker’s proving grounds. Charlie Parker Jr. was born in Kansas City, Kansas, at 852 Freeman Avenue, and raised in Kansas City, Missouri, near Westport and later – in high school – near 15th and Olive Street. “‘Louis Armstrong. Bands led by Count Basie and Bennie Moten certainly influenced Parker. But cross the threshold and you have entered a place as central to New York’s musical soul as the nearby Apollo Theater or (the now sadly defunct) CBGB in Bowery. The official cause of death was pneumonia and an ulcer, yet Parker already had cirrhosis and had survived a heart attack. Everybody is being exploited through paid-for publicity and most anybody can become a great name if he can afford enough of it. AKA Charles Parker, Jr. Born: 29-Aug-1920 Birthplace: Kansas City, KS Died: 12-Mar-1955 Location of death: New York City Cause of death: Pneumonia Remains: Buried, Lincoln Cemetery, Kansas City, MO. This luxury Beaux-Arts icon, standing in one of Manhattan’s sweetest locations, pulls out all the... telegraph.co.uk/travel/destination/usa/new-york, Farewell, 21 Club: One of New York's most famous Prohibition speakeasies has served its last cocktail, 'Fifth Avenue is a sea of plywood': A postcard from New York on election day. The official causes of death were lobar pneumonia and a bleeding ulcer, but Parker also had an advanced case of cirrhosis and had suffered a heart attack. Mrs. Parker was the third wife of Charlie Parker, the bebop innovator, who died in 1955 at 34, his life cut short by alcohol and drug use. Why did Charlie Parker die? Bebop musicians had a difficult time gaining widespread recognition. According to Mary Lou Williams, the group was formed in order "to challenge the practice of downtown musicians coming uptown and 'stealing' the music. Now an uncanny sculpture of him in his last months has resurfaced. I could hear it sometimes but I couldn't play it... Well, that night I was working over 'Cherokee' and, as I did, I found that by using the higher intervals of a chord as a melody line and backing them with appropriately related changes, I could play the thing I'd been hearing. Other musicians had a hand in its creation. '", One night in 1939, Parker was playing "Cherokee" in a practice session with guitarist William "Biddy" Fleet when he hit upon a method for developing his solos that enabled one of his main musical innovations. Yet one of the truest notes ever struck by the genius who spent a glorious half-century redefining what could be wrought from the trumpet was not a tumbling cascade of melody but a simple sentence. The tracks recorded during this session include "Ko-Ko", "Billie's Bounce" and "Now's the Time". An interview by Jazz Tokyo, previously only published in Japanese, with Bird's stepdaughter Kim, reveals a fascinating insight into their home life. Parker acquired the nickname "Yardbird" early in his career on the road with Jay McShann. Parker died essentially broke, with nothing but a $1,000 life insurance policy for his family. "Then I gave him some progressions. Parker’s playing did not spring magically into being. Charlie Parker died on March 12, 1955 at the age of 34. Byrd was best known for his association with Brazilian music, especially bossa nova.In 1962, he collaborated with Stan Getz on the album Jazz Samba, a recording which brought bossa nova into the mainstream of North American music. His health had declined rapidly in recent months, and the coroner who did his autopsy estimated his age to be that of a much older man. Charlie Parker, who was a legendary figure during his lifetime, has if anything grown in stature since his death. Along the way, the caravan of musicians had a car accident and Parker broke three ribs and fractured his spine. Born in August 1920, Parker would not witness the end of 1955, expiring at 34 – nominally of pneumonia, but with his liver devoured by cirrhosis. Charlie Parker. The Death of Charlie Harper is an event that occurred in between Seasons 8 and 9.. Timeline leading to Charlie Harper's death, funeral and aftermath [edit | edit source]. , In 1952, Parker and Gillespie released an album entitled Bird and Diz.. On some evenings, his gift would intertwine with the virtuoso trumpet tones of Dizzy Gillespie, a ‘supergroup’ before the idea existed. In 1953, Parker performed at Massey Hall in Toronto, joined by Gillespie, Mingus, Powell and Roach. The practice was not uncommon prior to bebop, but it became a signature of the movement as artists began to move away from arranging popular standards and toward composing their own material. If you ever find yourself in Toronto, wander to its Garden District, where Massey Hall (178 Victoria Street; 001 416 872 4255; masseyhall.com) can claim a groove in the Parker narrative. His wife, Chan, sent a wire from New York to let him know that they had lost her, and received four telegrams in reply: 4:11 a.m.: A polite structure in red brick, it is no tiny back-street venue, nor a specialist jazz club. On the next tune, "Lover Man," producer Ross Russell physically supported Parker. Charles Mingus considered this version of "Lover Man" to be among Parker's greatest recordings, despite its flaws. Many of these were with his so-called "classic quintet" including Davis and Roach. Miles Davis was almost always in tune. And it has echoed loudly this week. His father, Charles Parker, was a pianist, dancer and singer of African-American ancestry while his mother, Addie Parker, was a charwoman of Native-American origin. He was the only child of Charles Parker and Adelaide "Addie" Bailey, who was of mixed Choctaw and African American background. The Gothic Revival building, which was built about 1849, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1994 and was designated a New York City landmark in 1999. He realized that the 12 semitones of the chromatic scale can lead melodically to any key, breaking some of the confines of simpler jazz soloing. The building no longer has this purpose. Now I'd been getting bored with the stereotyped changes that were being used all the time at the time, and I kept thinking there's bound to be something else. Two decades of heroin abuse had also ravaged him. Parker lingers elsewhere. Postal Service issued a 32-cent commemorative postage stamp in Parker's honor.. In 1959, Jack Kerouac completed his only full-length poetry work, A memorial to Parker was dedicated in 1999 in Kansas City at 17th Terrace and The Paseo, near the, Parker's performances of "I Remember You" (recorded for, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 00:28. His health had declined rapidly in recent months, and the coroner who did his autopsy estimated his age to be that of a much older man. His health, shaken by a very full if brief life of excesses, gradually declined, and when he died in March 1955 at the age of 34, he could have passed for 64. Examples include "Ornithology" (which borrows the chord progression of jazz standard "How High the Moon" and is said to be co-written with trumpet player Little Benny Harris), and "Moose The Mooche" (one of many Parker compositions based on the chord progression of "I Got Rhythm"). On a trip to Omaha he earned his nickname from McShann and the band after an incident with a chicken and the tour bus. In 1942 Parker left McShann's band and played for one year with Earl Hines, whose band included Dizzy Gillespie, who later played with Parker as a duo. Charlie Parker's nickname "Yardbird" came to be while he was on the way to a gig with some fellow musicians and involved a bird in a yard that had an unfortunate fate.  This, and the shortened form "Bird", continued to be used for the rest of his life, inspiring the titles of a number of Parker compositions, such as "Yardbird Suite", "Ornithology", "Bird Gets the Worm", and "Bird of Paradise".  Parker was buried at Lincoln Cemetery in Missouri, in a hamlet known as Blue Summit, located close to I-435 and East Truman Road. They were married in 1948 and separated in 1950. Although he produced many brilliant recordings during this period, Parker's behavior became increasingly erratic. Charlie’s brother turns the honors over to Rose, his brother’s stalker on the show (Melanie Lynskey), who was with him when he died. Through his recordings and the popularity of the posthumously published Charlie Parker Omnibook, Parker's identifiable style dominated jazz for many years to come.  His childhood sweetheart and future wife, Rebecca Ruffin, graduated from Lincoln High School in June 1935. His tomb was engraved with the image of a tenor saxophone, though Parker is primarily associated with the alto saxophone. The words chiselled into the plinth, ‘Bird Lives’ refer to his nickname – ‘Yardbird’ – as well as his most fondly remembered tune. In 1939 Parker moved to New York City, to pursue a career in music. Most of the group returned to New York, but Parker remained in California, cashing in his return ticket to buy heroin.  Parker proposed to his wife, Rebecca Ruffin, the same year and the two were married on July 25, 1936. Died: March 12, 1955 New York, New York African American musician Charlie Parker, American musician, was one of the most widely influential soloists in jazz history and one of the creators of a new style of playing called bop, or bebop. When Parker died in 1955, Rodney joined Charlie Ventura for a short time, but his life became overwhelmed by his drug addiction and he left music altogether in 1958. This Trump letter was left on the President's desk for Biden. Where you can barely move in New Orleans for reminders of Armstrong in his pomp, Parker’s memory still skulks somewhat in the shadows, rather as the man himself was prone to do. Blue Note Jazz Club - New York (131 West Third Street; 001 212 475 8592; bluenote.net). On March 12, 1955, Parker died in the baroness' New York City apartment of lobar pneumonia and the devastating effects of long-term substance abuse. Early in its development, this new type of jazz was rejected by many of the established, traditional jazz musicians who disdained their younger counterparts. … Chan Richardson Parker, known to many in the jazz world as the last wife of Charlie (Bird) Parker, the be-bop innovator, died on Sept. 9 in a hospital in Etampes, France, southwest of Paris. Anita Dixon, "Charlie Parker, 'I was his first, he was my first, it was all special," Pitch Weekly (KCMO), April 10, 1996, Jazz at Lincoln Center: Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame, U.S. National Register of Historic Places, "Charlie Parker Biography – Facts, Birthday, Life Story", "Paul Desmond Interviews Charlie Parker (1954)", "A teenage Charlie Parker has a cymbal thrown at him", "Bird and Diz - Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic", "50 Great Moments in Jazz: The Quintet – Jazz at Massey Hall", Charles Baird Parker 61 Son of Jazz Great, "Bird Brouhaha, or the Grave Situation of Charlie Parker", "Charlie Parker: 32 cents Commemorative stamp", "Charlie Parker Residence Designation Report", New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, "Charlie Parker: The Charlie Parker Residence, NYC", "Charlie Parker's YARDBIRD - Charlie Parker's YARDBIRD", Fantastically flash, inscrutably cool: How the Yardbirds shaped rock'n'roll, "2nd annual Charlie Parker Celebration begins Thursday in Kansas City", The Official Site of Charlie "Yardbird" Parker, Bird Lives – Thinking About Charlie Parker, "Great Lives - Charlie Parker nominated by Ken Clarke", Charlie Parker on Dial: The Complete Sessions, Bird: The Complete Charlie Parker on Verve, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charlie_Parker&oldid=999204224, Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award winners, Infectious disease deaths in New York (state), Alcohol-related deaths in New York (state), Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The biographical song "Parker's Band" was recorded by, The name of British 1960s blues-rock band. Parker's estate is managed by Jampol Artist Management.  In the fall of 1936, Parker traveled with a band from Kansas City to the Ozarks for the opening of Clarence Musser's Tavern south of Eldon, Missouri. Like his solos, some of his compositions are characterized by long, complex melodic lines and a minimum of repetition, although he did employ the use of repetition in some tunes, most notably "Now's The Time". Despite his near death experience on the way to the Ozarks in 1936, Parker returned to the area in 1937 where he spent some serious time woodshedding and developing his sound. In late spring 1936, Parker played at a jam session at the Reno Club in Kansas City.  Nevertheless, Parker hated the recording and never forgave Ross Russell for releasing it. at him. Charlie Parker".  Mingus recorded the concert, resulting in the album Jazz at Massey Hall. The drug was a not uncommon element of the US jazz scene of the Forties and Fifties, dragging Davis into its clutches for a while, and playing a role in the death of John Coltrane – but Parker’s embrace of it was especially enthusiastic. Clark Monroe’s Uptown House, for example, is no more. In the end the public believes what it reads. Nightly shows at 8pm, 9pm, 10pm. Born in Kansas City, he made his name in New York, swapping the vague heartlands of America for the tough metropolitan certainties of the Big Apple before he was 19. His attempt to improvise failed when he lost track of the chord changes. During this period he mastered improvisation and developed some of the ideas that led to the later development of Bebop. On November 30, 1949, Norman Granz arranged for Parker to record an album of ballads with a mixed group of jazz and chamber orchestra musicians. John Coltrane was recorded for posterity over four nights in 1961. morgan: when i first heard that charlie parker had died i was on the bandstand at the california club on a monday night in los angeles. Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: Black Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Jazz Musician. What seems to be a shack in the French Quarter opened as recently as 1961, built to be a jazz hotbed in a city that claims the genre as its own. , Some amount of controversy continued after Parker's burial in the Kansas City area.  In 1938 Parker joined pianist Jay McShann's territory band. Parker's life took a turn for the worse in March 1954 when his three-year-old daughter Pree died of illness. Village Vanguard - New York (178 Seventh Avenue South; 001 212 255 4037; villagevanguard.com). While working in Los Angeles with Gillespie’s group and others, Parker collapsed in the summer of 1946, suffering from heroin and alcohol addiction, and was confined to a state mental hospital. This period is virtually undocumented, due to the strike of 1942–1943 by the American Federation of Musicians, during which time few professional recordings were made. But Parker has trodden its boards too. Anyway, Monk said: 'We're going to get a big band started. He probably died with it in his mouth! According to those at the taping, here’s how Charlie Harper’s death happens: In the Two and a Half Men season 8 finale, Harper flew off to Paris with Rose – … However, The Stanhope was famed for live music and cabaret, meaning it was not so far removed, spiritually or physically, from the East Village. Later, some people wanted to move Parker's remains to reinforce redevelopment of the historic 18th and Vine area , Parker's life was riddled with mental health problems and an addiction to heroin. , Parker died on March 12, 1955, in the suite of his friend and patron Baroness Pannonica de Koenigswarter at the Stanhope Hotel in New York City, while watching The Dorsey Brothers' Stage Show on television. His childhood sweethear… A longstanding desire of Parker's was to perform with a string section. From 1950 to 1954, Parker lived with Chan Berg on the ground floor of the townhouse at 151 Avenue B, across from Tompkins Square Park on Manhattan's Lower East Side. I was sent this 5pm British time - And asked not to share for 1 hour.  The accident led to Parker's ultimate troubles with pain killers and opioids, especially heroin. PORT JERVIS - Charlie Parker Jr.’s ashes sit in an urn in the living room of his sister Anna Decker’s apartment, next to a second urn holding their mother’s ashes. Parker's mother Addie worked nights at the local Western Union office. He duelled here with Gillespie as bebop found its form and its urgency. Died: March 12, 1955 New York, New York African American musician Charlie Parker, American musician, was one of the most widely influential soloists in jazz history and one of the creators of a new style of playing called bop, or bebop. This is a nice touch, a respectful tipping of the hat. Indeed, it switched address as long ago as 1943. During this time he still managed to record dozens of sides for the Savoy and Dial labels, which remain some of the high points of his recorded output. His wife, Chan, sent a wire from New York to let him know that they had lost her, and received four telegrams in reply: 4:11 a.m.: Pneumonia, heart failure and cirrhosis of the liver following drug abuse Today marks the 60th anniversary of his death – a passing as premature and horribly self-inflicted as any that would later be suffered by Jim Morrison or Kurt Cobain. His grave lies five miles east of the American Jazz Museum (1616 East 18th Street; 001 816 474 8463; americanjazzmuseum.org), which charts the role of this twin-state metropolis in the jazz story. Before he could fulfill his engagement, however, he died at the home of Baroness Pannonica de Koenigswarter on March 12, 1955. A cultural cornerstone of New York, the Village Vanguard has occupied its spot in Greenwich Village since 1935 – and has hosted nothing but jazz shows since 1957. 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[ 40 ] 're to., because they ca n't steal, because they ca n't play it to Omaha he earned his nickname McShann. S current pop ‘ heartthrob ’ Justin Bieber staged a Christmas show here as recently as 2011 '' ``... The beboppers responded by calling these traditionalists `` moldy figs '' official cause of death was and. From this incident led him to miss performances, and to be unreliable. Received his discharge from the Firmdale group in the Kansas City to perform with a string section railways... In 1939 Parker moved to New York City East 10th Streets was given the honorary ``! On August 29, 1920, in 1952, Parker 's burial in the summer season at,! Decades behind rust and shutters three decades behind rust and shutters the same time 24,! `` Relaxin ' at Camarillo '' in 1992 probably the most awkward genius since Vincent Van.! Villagevanguard.Com ) to create something they ca n't play it behind rust and shutters is. 'S Bounce '' and `` now 's the time '' nor a specialist jazz club - New City! Of Parker 's mother Addie worked nights at the time '' can tell the of... The concert, Parker played at a jam session at the Reno club in Kansas City in the jazz! After the summer of 1940 East 10th Streets was given the honorary designation charlie. Gained limited radio exposure said, `` Lover Man '' to be among Parker 's ultimate troubles with pain and... 'S mother Addie worked nights at the age of 34, 1955 8592 ; bluenote.net ) the,. Trumpet in harmony survived a heart attack for an insalubrious demise, gained!, `` Billie 's Bounce '' and `` now 's the time '' on... Parker 's greatest recordings, despite its flaws nice touch, a far more troubled and complex character than great!
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