Haber: Mirko Rosenau/Shutterstock Another group of researchers proposed to use a transgenic model for high-throughput testing of small molecules that modulate the heart rate of the zebrafish embryo . In one of the experiments, the injected fluorescent microsphere was detected when lumenization and anastomosis of the vascular network were complete . The identification of mutants is one of the most important strategies for the study in various areas of biology. The author declares that there is no conflict of interest. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Toxicity of antirheumatic drug like diclofenac was evaluated by using zebrafish. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Especially oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for about 24% of HNSCC with a mortality rate of 2 million deaths every year [76, 78]. Because of the variety of benefits to use zebrafish as a model organism which are mentioned in “Introduction,” the zebrafish is adroitly exploited to carcinogenic treatment, transplantation of mammalian tumor cells, and transgenic regulations . As a fish hobbyist, Streisinger recognized the potential of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of development. D. melanogaster remains one of the most widely used eukaryotic model organisms © 2018 The Author(s). by George Streisinger in 1970. It is achieved through interaction between endothelial cells and their niche. This has increased concerns associated with potential toxicity of nanoproducts to humans and the environments. Depending on conditions, the lifespan of zebrafish ranges from 3 to 5 years. The zebrafish model has been used potentially in drug discovery and to know the effects of neurotoxic, ototoxic, and neuroprotectant drugs. He is the “Founder Father” of Zebrafish Developmental and Genetic Research. Being a vertebrate the zebrafish is an ideal model to study cancer, though humans and fishes are separated from their common ancestry but biology of the cancer in both groups of organisms is the same . BIOGRAPHY Ronald Plasterk, is a Dutch politician of the Labour Party and successful scientist and molecular genetics. The zebrafish genome shares a lot of similarities with human genome. Through the transparent zebrafish embryo, various cardiac functions like heart rate, rhythm, contraction, circulation, etc. It takes place in two parallel chains along the length of the developing gut [25, 27, 28]. The embryo develops very fast, and the blastula stage lasts only for 3 h, while gastrulation gets completed in 5 h; in an embryo that is about 18 h old, very well developed ears, eyes, segmenting muscles, and brain can be viewed as the embryo is transparent. The drugs which affect the physiology of the fishes can be tested easily in zebrafish especially their effect on a range of alleles to assess their genetic property . The future of zebrafish as model organism is very bright. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. In this review, we provide an introduction to the zebrafish model system by overviewing set-up and husbandry requirements, the … The zebrafish disease models are being used in various infections of aquaculture, for instance, tuberculosis and streptococcal and salmonella infections . SCCs are curable in situ by surgical excision. The impact of various proangiogenic compounds like simvastatine or penicillamine20 or antiangiogenic compounds like vandetanib or PTK787 can be assessed well and visualized through the development of the vascular system in transparent zebrafish embryo . The zebrafish can be used to study melanoma development, progression, drug screening, and treatment. Model organisms are a tool for scientists to better understand biology. Also 70% of human disease genes have functional similarities with those of zebrafish . Like that of all vertebrates, the enteric nervous system of zebrafish is also derived from neural crest , but it differs potentially from amniotes wherein the enteric nervous system is derived from both the vagal and sacral crests, while in the case of zebrafish, it is derived from the vagal crest only [25, 26, 27, 28].  developed a test in which susceptible zebrafish was used to detect small molecule-induced mutagenesis. The final organization of the zebrafish ENS is also very simple as compared to that of amniotes; it is composed of single neuron or small group of neurons rather than more complex ganglionated myenteric and submucosal plexuses [27, 29]. Today zebrafish is a well-established model organism in developmental genetics. Contact our London head office or media team here. At this stage, very limited therapeutic options are available, and melanoma frequently deteriorates and becomes untreatable [73, 74]. It is a bony fish (teleost) that belongs to the family Cyprinidae under the class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. ZebrafishasanExperimental Organism Corinne Houart,King’s College, London, UK The zebrafish became, in the last decade, a model organism of choice to study vertebrate development. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Zebrafish was first used as a biological model by George Streisinger (University of Oregon) in the 1970s because it was simpler over mouse and easy to manipulate genetically. Zebrafish is a successful and versatile animal model system, offering a tool to model gene function, development of various organ systems, cancer studies, toxicology, drug discovery, human disease and disorders and also in aquaculture, etc. The lethal concentration (LC50) of different chemicals has been determined in embryos of zebrafish and has been compared with the mammalian LC50, and it has been found that median lethal dose of zebrafish is lower than mammals . The zebrafish exhibits remarkable capacity of regeneration even in adult stages. Vijay Kapur, retired CEO of International Solar Electric Technology, presents this month’s virtual JPS talk. For vascular development and growth, angiogenesis plays a very important role. Photograph 01 George Streisinger. After identification of possible target, the validation process of target begins through determination of protein function and assessment of the druggability of the target [84, 97, 98, 99]. Nüsslein-Volhard recognized the importance of zebrafish as a vertebrate model to study developmental biology by identifying developmentally important genes . Zebrafish were first used as a model organism by George Streisinger in the late 1960s at the University of Oregon, with the research culminating in the cloning of zebrafish, making them the first vertebrates to be cloned. In RFP treated U87 glioma stem cells (GSCs), when transplanted into the yolk sac of the zebrafish embryo, the various invasive stages of GSCs like approaching, cluster formation, invasion, migration, and transmigration can be observed clearly at 48 h postinjection . Zebrafish in research . The zebrafish model is used commercially in many areas of aquaculture such as in the identification of genes involved in the development of the muscles, bones, and fats, the metabolism of nutrients, disease, and stress pathways and also behavioral traits. These include neurological disorders , hematological disorder [105, 106], cardiovascular diseases , muscle disease  and cancers [109, 110], Parkinson’s disease , anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder . Many of the critical pathways that control development in vertebrates are highly conserved between human and zebrafish. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. This intestinal bulb displays patterns of motility as well as goblet cells that produce acid and neutral mucins like the stomach of mammals [20, 21]. To better understand the process of metastasis, the transplanted tumor cells can be stained/treated by dye like CM-Dil or may be labeled by red fluorescent protein (RFP) . Choosing zebrafish for modeling cancer studies has many advantages. The regenerating vessels in the regenerating caudal fin originate from vein-derived cells that have angiogenic potential . Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel ABSTRACT The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine.The tr ansparency of the ze - This tiny fish is a versatile model organism for many fields of research because of its easy maintenance, breeding, and transparent body during early development. Built by scientists, for scientists. Zebrafish has great role in each of these areas of drug discovery. This provides insight into the genetic control of developmental processes in humans because their genomes are similar. The zebrafish model has been used to see the development of various systems/processes as follows. Now, zebrafish has got the status of a successful animal model to study drug toxicity and toxicology caused by environmental contaminants . By 24 h, segmentation gets completed, and most primary organ systems are formed. Metastasis is a multistep and complex process in which tumor cells penetrate in the vascular system and spread deep in parenchymatous tissues . In larvae, access to developing vasculature through fluorophore-tagged strains and small size of zebrafish makes the use of high-throughput strategies possible. History of zebrafish Charles Creaser was the first to initiate the use of zebrafish in laboratories in the 1930s. Among all the zebrafish proved best for investigating embryogenesis, organogenesis, and impact of environmental carcinogen for the development of cancer . The individual cell growth during vascular development also can be tracked. All of the steps toward revealing the neuronal basis of behavior summarized in the previous sections become easier if one can simply look to the brain of an animal and see everything that is happening all at once. By 72 h, the embryo hatches out from the eggshell and within the next 2 days starts hunting for food. The endothelial cells of the vascular system can be stained by fluorescent dye/protein that helps to visualize the neovascularization of tiny tumor at the earliest stage, and metastasizing tumor cells can be tracked explicitly at cellular level . Like other vertebrates, the zebrafish gastrointestinal tract is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types like epithelial, muscular, vascular, neural, and immune cells. Primarily cancer is a disease of adults, but through mutagenesis screens, cell cycle phenotype could be examined in rapidly developing transparent embryos of the zebrafish. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Streisinger’s colleagues especially Chuck Kimmel in his university got much impressed by the idea of using zebrafish embryo more attractive to study the development of nervous system. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The adult zebrafish attains sexual maturity very quickly, having generation time of about 10 weeks, and also this tiny fish has good fecundity rate. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Most of the tissues and organs found in humans and zebrafish are the same except lungs and prostrate and mammary glands. The zebrafish model also has been used to know the organ function assays and assessment of drug effect . We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Metastatic SCCs are responsible for majority of deaths due to non-melanoma skin cancer . Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGT) takes place in the exonic and promoter regions [58, 59] and changes in gene expression associated with tumorigenesis. These are non-human animal species which can be used to understand specific biological processes and to obtain informations which can provide an insight into working of other organisms. Since they are naturally found in ponds, their ideal conditions can be easily replicated. Clinically and pathologically this dreaded disease is present almost exclusively in all vertebrates, from fish to humans. How? Afterward the precursors of the ENS voyage circumferentially around the gut and differentiate into the enteric neuron and glia. The mammalian tumor cells can be transplanted into the zebrafish, dispensing a novel way to study the interactions between transplanted tumor cell and vasculature of host. Maintenance Firstly, Zebrafish are very robust and easy to maintain. Realizing the importance of zebrafish model, Grunwald and Eisen used this developmental model to study the segmental structure of the brain and characterized neurons in zebrafish for the first time in a vertebrate model . The rapid development simplifies development and genetic studies. These model organisms were chosen because of their importance and wide use, which made them systems of choice for genome-wide studies. The process of target identification involves the recognition of target gene or protein which when modulated by a drug can have positive effects on the progression of disease. Since young zebrafish are transparent, scientists can now see some of the most crucial life processes as they happen. Studying most questions in humans is neither practical nor feasible, which is why using such model organisms as the zebrafish is vital to discovery—and has been for hundreds of years. Animals as model organisms, the silent sentinels, stand watch over the environmental health of the world. 7 8. As discussed previously in Section 1, because of many advantages, the zebrafish has recently emerged as a prominent model for toxicological studies and drug discovery. To understand better the formation, growth, and spread of malignant tumors, vertebrate models are imperative. Reprodu… In the late 1960s, George Streisinger, who is considered the founding father of zebrafish research, first introduced this tiny slender fish as a vertebrate model for research on genetics and development at the University of Oregon. Methylation of DNA at CpG dinucleotides is an important component of epigenetic gene expression regulation  that causes the modulation of protein-DNA interactions [56, 57]. ... JPS welcomes a panel of industry leaders for a virtual discussion about the development and commercialization of nonanimal foods. Depending on conditions, the lifespan of zebrafish ranges from 3 to 5 years. This review is by no means a comprehensive one but an attempt to provide a flavor to the readers some recent advances about this wonderful creature to use in potential researches. It has been reported that mammalian malignant cells can be xenotransplanted into zebrafish embryos, and they can form tumors , and thus models for tumor angiogenesis have been developed . By using zebrafish, the suppressing or promoting factors for metastasis can be identified. Licensee IntechOpen. Here, we review some achievements of zebrafish-based assays for modeling human diseases and for drug discovery and development. The zebrafish is acquiring the reputation rapidly as a promising model animal to study drug and chemical toxicology [92, 93]. Many biomedical breakthroughs owe their discovery to advances in the tools and methods scientists use, especially model organisms. -- The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is perhaps the model organism with the fastest rising popularity in science right now. Inadequate maintenance leads to the development of many disorders like tissue ischemia, inflammatory disorders, retinopathies, excessive vascular growth, or abnormal remodeling that promotes cancer . Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) are a small‐bodied tropical, freshwater fish species originally from South Asia. The vascular network is helpful to transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells; likewise tumor cells also get the supply of all these materials. [14, 15, 16]. Farmanur Rahman Khan and Saleh Sulaiman Alhewairini (November 27th 2018). Zebrafish as a Model Organism to Study Nanomaterial Toxicity Recent developments in nanotechnology has increased the market value of nanoproducts in various industries. Francesca Tuazon will discuss the history of model organisms and the technological advances afforded by using zebrafish. Melanoma usually develops in the pigmented epidermal cells (melanocytes), which are responsible for the production of melanin. This talk will also delve into one of life’s biggest mysteries and science’s oldest questions: how do we become what we are? In a period of just 4 days, the embryo converts rapidly into a small version of adult. Dear Colleagues, The need of animal models to understand and offer better treatment for human diseases is still indispensable. In drug development, the toxicity plays a major role. Zebrafish is a tropical freshwater fish, inhabitant of rivers (Ganges mainly) of Himalayan region of South Asia especially India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ‘Stages in the Development of a Model Organism as a Platform for Mechanistic Models in Developmental Biology: Zebrafish, 1970–2000’. 1981). DISTRIBUTION 6 7. The angiogenesis has already been discussed earlier in detail in previous sections on development and cancer. The zebrafish model has been exploited recently to recognize the key molecules which are responsible for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)  as well as for SCC target therapies . Subsequently, a large variety of creative approaches were used to develop disease models that are used to study developmental disorders, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and many other conditions. In adults, the caudal fin is equally convenient as a model tissue as regenerating vessels can be observed at all stages, and the animals (zebrafish) are suitable for experimental drug manipulations . Zebrafish have been introduced to parts of the United States. Available from: Novel Implications of Exosomes in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer and Infectious Disease... Use of zebrafish in developmental biology, Zebrafish as a model organism for aquaculture species, Department of Biology, Deanship of Educational Services, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Department of Plant Production and Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are small tropical fish (2.5-4 cm long) found natively in south Asia.First used in the 1960s in biological research, Zebrafish have proven to be excellent model organisms for developmental and disease studies. For better therapeutic practices like development of antitumor drugs and advancements of clinical treatments, the insight into mechanism of tumor metastasis is very helpful. Dr Caroline Brennan, from Queen Mary University of London, tells the NC3Rs the top five reasons why zebrafish are her model of choice. By Farmanur Rahman Khan and Saleh Sulaiman Alhewairini, Submitted: May 9th 2018Reviewed: September 14th 2018Published: November 27th 2018, Home > Books > Current Trends in Cancer Management. The genes regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, and apoptosis have already been screened in yeast, Drosophila and C. elegans, in the similar way gene functions for these biological pathways can be screened in zebrafish to understand the events that lead to the development of cancer in any vertebrate species . In the beginning of melanoma, it is restricted to the epidermis because of the radial growth phase (RGP) of melanoma, and it can be removed by surgical excision . The drugs that were used to evaluate the organ toxicity were gentamicin, cisplatin, vinblastine, quinine, neomycin, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, cyclosporin A, caffeine, camptothecin, MPA, fluorouracil, etc. During embryonic development, the intersegmental vessels are formed by angiogenic sprouting from the dorsal aorta, and they have been the target of studies using genetic perturbations or drugs . They are also very cheap; however, they do require more space than other model organisms such as flies. Mammalian tumor cells treated with red fluorescent protein when injected into transgenic zebrafish, the process of tumor cell metastasis and angiogenesis can be viewed well after 48 h of transplantation . The zebrafish as a supplement to other model organisms The zebrafish also has great research value as a supplement to other model organisms. About 70% of genes associated with disease in humans have functional homologs in zebrafish . Adult zebrafish are small in size, they grow quickly, and they breed readily. The gut of the zebrafish (teleost) and amniotes have structural similarities, but in teleost it is less complex as compared to amniotes . Under laboratory conditions the zebrafish can spawn throughout the year that ensures the constant supply of offspring from designated pairs that makes this transparent fish a quintessential choice for large-scale genetic approaches to identify novel genes and to discover their specific functions in vertebrates . Many biomedical breakthroughs owe their discovery to advances in the tools and methods scientists use, especially model organisms. It has been demonstrated well that toxic effects of ten cardiotoxic agents in zebrafish embryos have similar impact as in humans . Zebrafish embryos are used as predictive model to assess the toxicity in mammals. Among the model organisms, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the best leading models to study developmental biology, cancer, toxicology, drug discovery, and molecular genetics. Zebrafish has a lot of physiological and genetic similarities with humans, including the brain, digestive tract, musculature, vasculature, and innate immune system [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Hypermethylation of tumorigenetic genes has negative impact (regulation) over tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), DNA repair genes, and antiangiogenic genes, and it is a common quality of neoplastic cells [55, 60, 61, 62, 63]. Environmental health of the anterior intestine that is known as the intestinal bulb oncogenes via suppressor and enhancer screens cause... Organism for developmental, toxicological, and even death [ 103 ] JPS talk is no conflict interest! Family Cyprinidae under the class Actinopterygii ( ray-finned fishes ) ten cardiotoxic agents in zebrafish requires very low and! 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About 70 % of genes associated with disease in humans [ 101 ] a major role and enhancer screens cause... Or acetaldehyde [ 95 ] oncology, regeneration and particularly embryonic development study the development of various as.
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